Spray Angle and Coverage

Spray angles indicate approximate spray coverages in the chart below  based on water liquid. Actually, spraying angles 
depand on viscosity, spray pressure and nozzle capacity. 





Droplet Size

Accurate drop size information is an important factor in the overall effectiveness of spray nozzle 
operation particularly in industrial applications such as gas cooling, gas conditioning, fire suppression 
and spray drying.
Drop size refers to the size of the individual spray drops that comprise a nozzle’s spray pattern. Each 
spray provides a range of drop sizes; this range is referred to as drop size distribution. Drop size 
distribution is dependent on the spray pattern type and varies significantly from one type to another. 
The smallest drop sizes are achieved by air atomizing nozzles while the largest drops are produced by 
full cone hydraulic spray nozzles.
 
Liquid properties, nozzle capacity, spraying pressure and spray angle also affect drop size. Lower 
spraying pressures provide larger drop sizes. Conversely, higher spraying pressures yield smaller drop 
sizes. Within each type of spray pattern the smallest capacities produce the smallest spray drops, and 
the largest capacities produce the largest spray drops.


Spray Impact

Impact, or the impingement of a spray onto the target surface, can 
be expressed in several different ways. The most useful impact 
value with regard to spray nozzle performance is the impact per 
square inch (cm). Basically, this value depends on the spray 
pattern distribution and spray angle. To obtain the impact per 
square inch (cm) [pounds (kg)-force per square inch (cm)] of a 
given nozzle, first determine the theoretical total impact using the 
following formula.
I = K x Q x √P
I: Total theoretical spray impact
K: Constant
Q: Flow rate
P: Liquid pressure
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